Might you think about pizza with out tomatoes, ratatouille with out peppers or cassoulet with out beans, Italy with out polenta, Espelette with out peppers, mousse with out chocolate and rice pudding with out vanilla? All of those staples – and lots of extra, equivalent to pumpkins and avocados – come from Mexico, the place their tradition originated.
Certainly, even whether it is much less recognized than different international locations for its botanical variety, Mexico is nonetheless wealthy in an unbelievable plant selection. For the hundreds of years that it has been established there, man has used it to feed and heal. And we ourselves, removed from these unique lands, make the most of it every day.
It’s for instance within the very middle of Mexico that maize was born, from a wild grass, teosinte, the cultivation of which produced ears of variable sizes bearing grains of an unbelievable variety of colours starting from blue to purple and from yellow to purple. Most frequently, they’re cooked in water with lime added, which dissolves the indigestible cuticle and releases vitamin PP, the deficiency of which produces pellagra. This course of, developed by the traditional Mexicans, is named “nixtamalization”. The cooked grains are crushed – historically on a flat stone – right into a thick paste, the masa, which can be used to organize the staple meals, the tortilla. Black beans are the opposite mainstay of Mexican delicacies, which features a multitude of sorts of peppers, massive, small, kind of robust, however all the time very tasty and fully unknown in Europe.
Nopales, tunas, pulque and tequila
Previously the seeds of amaranth and sage fashioned necessary cereals, usually consumed ritually. After having been uncared for for hundreds of years, they’re now making a outstanding comeback in natural shops, the previous usually integrated into cereal bars, the latter as such underneath the identify of “chia seeds”. Alongside the European greens imported by the Spaniards, be aware the nopales, younger stems of the racket cactus which might be picked tender and nonetheless devoid of thorns. Crunchy and mucilaginous, they’re usually cooked in an fragrant tomato sauce. Cacti type widespread fruit species in Mexico: tunas are eaten as they’re and are used to organize jams and drinks.
Agaves are sometimes mistaken for cacti, however belong to a really totally different botanical household. They’re the supply of probably the most conventional Mexican drink, pulque, produced from the fermented juice of the plant that’s collected within the cavity obtained by eradicating the massive shoot that overhangs the spectacular rosette of prickly and fleshy leaves. At first very candy – the “agave syrup” is ready by concentrating it –, the juice rapidly takes on alcohol all through the day. It’s appreciated otherwise relying on the hour. The nation’s nationwide drink, extensively recognized exterior its borders, additionally comes from agave. Previously, the trunks stripped of their leaves have been cooked in an underground oven and served as meals for the inhabitants, particularly within the deserts the place the plant abounds. Very candy, they gave after being crushed with water and left to ferment an alcoholic liquid that the colonists undertook to distill: thus was born the mezcal whose model produced across the metropolis of Tequila within the State of Jalisco grew to become well-known all around the world.
As many flavors as sapotes
The new and humid local weather of the lowlands of Mexico permits many tropical fruits to develop there. Amongst them are a number of sapotes that belong to totally different plant teams. The commonest is the sapodilla (Manilkara zapota), a small brown pear with creamy and candy flesh, caramel taste, containing just a few massive black and glossy seeds. Its trunk secretes a latex collected underneath the identify of chicle which is the origin of chewing gum. The sapote blanco (Casimiroa edulis) offers fruits with creamy white pulp with taste of peach and vanilla. These of the sapote negro (Diospyros nigra), a cousin of the persimmon, have a black and thick flesh after softening – an over-ripening –, which is in comparison with a chocolate pudding. Sapote amarillo (Pouteria campechiana) produces elongated fruits with vivid yellow pulp, very dense and intensely candy, paying homage to an egg biscuit. And these are just some examples among the many multiplicity of Mexican fruits…
The heritage of the Aztecs Vegetation produce other makes use of on this astonishing nation. A lot of them have medicinal properties, equivalent to copal (Bursera trifoliolata), whose aromatic resin was used as incense lengthy earlier than the Spanish conquest, and which is used to deal with respiratory illnesses. These crops have been recognized since pre-Columbian instances when the Aztecs recorded them in typically illustrated codices taken up by Spanish monks, equivalent to Fray Bernardino de Sahagún (Historia basic de las cosas de la Nueva España). They might clearly be too quite a few to say, however we will point out chaya (Cnidoscolus chayamansa), a robust and reputed analgesic with out negative effects, chinahuatillo (Acalypha alopecuroides), used in opposition to bronchial asthma and wounds, guajilote (Parmentiera aculeata) , whose bark helps stop urinary stones, cuachalalate (Amphipterygium adstringens), used in opposition to infections, and so on.
A number of crops additionally produce fibers used for craft and industrial functions. One of the best recognized is sisal (Agave sisalana), a cousin of the agave from which tequila is extracted.
If sure Mexican crops have grow to be acquainted to us – and even for a number of of them important –, many others are nonetheless largely unknown to us. Discovering them will help improve our appreciation of life, and that is as much as us.
Have you ever ever tasted “Mexican tea”?
Lengthy labeled among the many chenopods, Dysphania ambrosioides stays a cousin. It is extremely just like these frequent “weeds” in our gardens that we eat like spinach, however is distinguished by its penetrating camphor odor. Below the native identify of epazote, it is likely one of the most typical condiments in Mexico, the place its use dates again to pre-Columbian instances. It’s notably appreciated with black beans, frijoles, which it facilitates digestion. Referred to as “Mexican tea”, it was as soon as well-known as a vermifuge.
Lastly, among the many uncommon Mexican condiments is anisillo (Tagetes lucida). Regardless of its anise taste, it’s carefully associated to marigolds in our gardens. The Aztecs, who referred to as it yauthli, flavored with it the drink they ready from cocoa beans and which gave our chocolate. At this time, it flavors soups and sauces. Its natural tea is used to deal with colds and promotes digestion.
Within the High 5!
4 instances bigger than France and twice as populous, Mexico rises in altitude from sea stage to the height of Orizaba, which culminates at practically 6,000 m, which generates very assorted climates and permits observe many sorts of vegetation. Tropical rainforest borders the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific coast to the south, huge cactus-covered deserts stretch throughout the north of the nation, whereas oak groves intermingled with different hardwoods, adopted by high-altitude pine forests, lengthen rise on the aspect of the mountains. Mexico is estimated to host 10-12% of all international biodiversity. It’s estimated that greater than 26,000 plant species dwell there – twice as many as in all of Europe – which makes it the fourth nation on the earth for the number of flora. Virtually a tenth of the nation is made up of nature reserves, however over-logging is inflicting immense injury within the nation.
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